Síndrome de agotamiento psicológico en personal de la salud durante la pandemia por COVID-19: revisión narrativa

Burnout syndrome in health personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic: narrative review

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Yeison Camilo Alarcón-Moreno
Andrea Carolina Rodríguez-Pugliesse
Yaline Sánchez-Neira

Resumen

Introducción: La pandemia por COVID-19 ha representado una alta carga laboral y emocional en los trabajadores de salud, lo cual se ha asociado con consecuencias negativas para la salud de estas personas, como el agotamiento psicológico (AP). Objetivo: Identificar en la producción de la literatura la prevalencia del síndrome de AP y sus factores asociados en el personal de salud en la pandemia por COVID-19. Metodología: Se llevó a cabo una revisión narrativa de la literatura en bases de datos electrónicas como Medline, Science Direct y LILACS para tres ejes temáticos: 1) AP en personal de la salud, 2) prevalencia del AP durante la pandemia por COVID-19 y 3) los factores asociados durante los años 2019 al 2021. Resultados: Diversos estudios evaluaron el AP en personal de salud durante la pandemia por COVID-19, con prevalencias desde el 8 % hasta el 68 %. Adicionalmente, los factores que se asociaron con una mayor prevalencia fueron tener mayor carga laboral, pocas horas de sueño, menor edad y trabajar en cuidados intensivos. Conclusiones: El personal de salud presentó prevalencias muy variadas del síndrome de AP en la pandemia por COVID-19, asociados a condiciones laborales y de formación clínica, que fueron los más representativos.

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