Efectos de la pandemia por COVID-19 en la salud mental de los trabajadores de la salud. Revisión de la literatura

Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of health workers. Literature review

Contenido principal del artículo

Angie Carolina Beltrán-Ruiz
Lyna Melissa Jiménez-Peña
Clara Lizeth Palencia-Mojica

Resumen

Introducción: El coronavirus es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 y catalogada como una emergencia en salud pública de importancia internacional que ha generado consecuencias en diferentes aspectos de la vida social y, principalmente, en la salud mental. En este aspecto, los trabajadores del sector de la salud fueron una de las poblaciones más afectadas, al estar en la primera línea de cuidado de los pacientes contagiados. Objetivo: Describir el efecto de la pandemia por COVID-19 sobre la salud mental del personal sanitario. Metodología: Búsqueda de literatura con investigaciones originales publicadas entre 2020 y 2021 en las bases de datos Pubmed, SciELO, Proquest y Science Direct, escritas en español, inglés y portugués. La estrategia de búsqueda incluyó las palabras clave: personal de salud, COVID-19, pandemias por el nuevo coronavirus, salud mental e impacto psicosocial. Se excluyeron artículos de revisión, revisiones sistemáticas y literatura gris. Se encontraron 152 publicaciones, de las cuales se seleccionaron 50 artículos originales. Resultados: Los trabajadores del sector de la salud fueron una de las poblaciones más afectadas por la pandemia, debido a las altas cargas laborales, escasez de personal, condiciones de trabajo, inestabilidad económica y deficiente material de protección, que los volvió vulnerables y propensos a desencadenar síntomas de estrés, ansiedad, depresión e insomnio. Conclusión: La evidencia científica recomienda implementar estrategias adecuadas de intervención psicosocial, por medio de diferentes componentes interdisciplinarios que regulen y resuelvan el riesgo inmediato y futuro en esta población.

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Referencias (VER)

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