Sistemas de expresión de proteínas recombinantes para el análisis funcional de antígenos de Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax: una revisión

Recombinant protein expression systems for functional analysis of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax antigens: a review

Contenido principal del artículo

Alida Marcela Gómez Rodríguez
Laura Esperanza Cuy-Chaparro
Anny Jineth Camargo Marcipe

Resumen

Introducción. Comprender la función de antígenos de Plasmodium spp., involucrados en invasión a células hospederas es necesario para diseñar vacunas. Diferentes estudios han generado proteínas recombinantes utilizando sistemas de expresión heterólogos, obteniendo moléculas semejantes a las nativas. Estos avances son fundamentales para desarrollar estrategias que bloqueen la infección de estos patógenos.


Objetivo. Describir las características y aspectos metodológicos más importantes de sistemas de expresión de proteínas recombinantes en estudios funcionales de Plasmodium spp.


Metodoogía. Revisión descriptiva de estudios publicados en PubMed, Science Direct, Embase y MedLine. Criterios de inclusión: trabajos publicados entre el 2010 y 2020 que incluyeran sistemas recombinantes en células de Escherichia coli, de mamífero y libre de células, para estudios funcionales de antígenos de Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax. Se revisaron 70 artículos originales, 58 cumplieron con los criterios establecidos y 12 utilizaron otros sistemas heterólogos diferentes a los analizados en este estudio.   


Resultados. Obtener proteínas recombinantes mediante sistema procariota, de mayor rendimiento y bajo costo, ha permitido estudios funcionales de un número importante de antígenos. Los sistemas con células de mamífero y libre de células, que permiten modificaciones pos-traduccionales y plegamiento adecuado de moléculas, se usan para producir librerías de antígenos con estructura conformacional similar a la nativa. 


Conclusión. Estudio de antígenos de Plasmodium spp. implicados en infección y desarrollo en células diana, requiere adecuada selección del método de producción recombinante. El refinamiento de procesos de expresión en sistemas procariotas, eucariotas e in vitro, mediante ingeniería genética y cultivo celular, permitirá mejores rendimientos y menor costo.

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